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  • Writer's pictureIvan Palomino

A Comprehensive Guide to Creating Innovative Solutions - Design Thinking for Non-Techies

design thinking for non tech people by peoplekult

Introduction to Design Thinking

Design thinking is a human-centered problem-solving approach that uses the designer's toolkit to come up with innovative solutions to complex problems. It is a non-linear, iterative process that involves five stages: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test.

The first stage, empathize, involves understanding the user and their needs. This is done through observation, interviews, and other forms of research. The goal of this stage is to build empathy for the user and to understand their pain points. The second stage, define, involves clarifying the problem that you are trying to solve. This is done by analyzing the data that you collected in the empathize stage. The third stage, ideate, involves generating creative solutions to the problem. This is done through brainstorming, sketching, and other creative exercises. The goal of this stage is to come up with as many ideas as possible, even if they seem crazy at first. The fourth stage, prototype, involves building physical or digital models of your ideas. This helps you to test your ideas and to get feedback from users. The fifth and final stage, test, involves testing your prototypes with users and getting their feedback. This feedback is used to refine your ideas and to create a final solution.

Design thinking is a powerful tool that can be used to solve a wide variety of problems. It is a process that is iterative and collaborative, and it is focused on the user. Design thinking can be used by individuals, teams, and organizations to come up with innovative solutions to complex problems.

Applying Design Thinking in various fields

Design thinking is a relevant problem-solving approach that can be used in a variety of fields and industries. Here are some examples of how design thinking is being used in different fields:

Business: Design thinking is being used by businesses to come up with new products and services, to improve customer experience, and to solve business problems.

Education: Design thinking is being used in education to improve the learning experience for students. For example, the Design Thinking for Learning Initiative is a global network of educators who are using design thinking to create more student-centered learning environments.

Healthcare: Design thinking is being used in healthcare to improve the patient experience and to develop new healthcare solutions. For example, the Mayo Clinic used design thinking to develop a new way to help patients manage their chronic conditions.

Government: Design thinking is being used by governments to solve social problems and to improve public services. For example, the United States government used design thinking to develop a new way to help veterans find jobs.

These are just a few examples of how design thinking is being used in different fields and industries. As the world becomes more complex, design thinking is becoming an increasingly important tool for solving problems and creating innovative solutions.

Here are some of the benefits of using design thinking in various fields and industries:

  • It can help to understand the needs of users. Design thinking is a human-centered approach, so it helps to put the user at the center of the problem-solving process. This can help to ensure that solutions are actually meeting the needs of the people who will be using them.

  • It can help to generate creative solutions. Design thinking encourages people to think outside the box and to come up with new and innovative solutions to problems. This can be especially helpful in fields where there are no easy answers.

  • It can help to build collaboration. Design thinking is a collaborative process, so it can help to bring people from different backgrounds and disciplines together to work on a problem. This can lead to more creative and effective solutions.

  • It can help to test and iterate solutions. Design thinking encourages people to test and iterate solutions throughout the problem-solving process. This can help to ensure that solutions are actually working and that they are meeting the needs of users.

Importance of Design Thinking for companies and individuals

Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that can be used by anyone, regardless of their industry or background. It is a human-centered approach that focuses on understanding the needs of the user and developing solutions that are both creative and effective.

Here are some of the importance of design thinking for companies and individuals:

  • It can help you to solve complex problems. Design thinking is a systematic approach to problem-solving that can help you to break down complex problems into smaller, more manageable pieces. This can be helpful for solving problems that are difficult to define or that have no obvious solutions.

  • It can help you to come up with innovative solutions. Design thinking encourages creativity and experimentation. This can lead to the development of innovative solutions that would not have been possible using traditional problem-solving methods.

  • It can help you to understand your users better. Design thinking puts the user at the center of the problem-solving process. This means that you will need to spend time understanding the needs and desires of your users before you can develop a solution.

  • It can help you to build better products and services. Design thinking can be used to improve the usability, functionality, and appeal of products and services. This can lead to increased customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  • It can help you to create a more human-centered organization. Design thinking can help you to create an organization that is more responsive to the needs of its employees, customers, and other stakeholders. This can lead to a more positive and productive work environment.

The Steps of Design Thinking

Empathy and User Centricity:

Empathy is placing oneself in the shoes of another in order to fully comprehend their feelings, thoughts, and viewpoints. Empathy in the context of Design Thinking refers to understanding the emotions, behaviors, difficulties, and ambitions of the people who will utilize the product, service, or solution you are building. By empathizing with people, you may find hidden insights, motives, and pain fields that can be used to steer the design process and lead to deeper, more pertinent solutions.

Conducting interviews, monitoring user behavior, and participating in active listening to acquire firsthand knowledge about their experiences are all practical ways to cultivate empathy. Empathy enables designers to connect deeply with people, allowing them to build solutions that truly meet their requirements.

User-Centricity: Putting the user at the core of the design process and prioritizing their requirements and preferences is what user-centricity entails. rather than producing anything based entirely on assumptions or personal preferences, user-centric design entails including and engaging people throughout the design process. This method guarantees that the final item or solution is suited to the real demands of the consumers, hence improving usability, efficiency, and total value.

A user-centric approach requires designers to constantly solicit user feedback, include them in decision-making, and iterate on ideas depending on their comments. This method aids in the refinement and optimization of the solution based on practical usage, making it more pertinent and efficient for the target audience.

Even if they are not directly active in technological sectors, non-tech people can apply a variety of tactics to improve their empathy and user-centricity. Some specific measures that can be taken are:

  • Active Listening: When dealing with people, pay close attention. Focus on what the individual is saying, ask additional information, and minimize interruptions to practice active listening. This allows you to genuinely comprehend their points of view and demands.

  • Engage in talks: Communicate with individuals from all backgrounds. This will expose you to a wide range of perspectives and experiences, allowing you to enhance your awareness of various user demands.

  • Observe Behavior: Pay attention to how people engage with products, services, and settings. Examine their actions, emotions, and reactions to learn about their habits and preferences.

  • Ask Open-Ended Questions: When seeking comments or insights, use open-ended questions that invite others to share their opinions and emotions in detail. Avoid asking leading questions that may sway their replies.

  • User Interviews: Arrange interviews with users to directly get insights from them. Prepare a series of open-ended questions to elicit their issues, needs, and goals.

  • Feedback Loops: Create mediums for continuous user feedback and interact with users throughout the design and execution phases. Seek feedback on a regular basis to help you modify and enhance your solutions.

  • Daily Empathy exercise: Consciously exercise empathy in your daily experiences by taking into account the perspectives and feelings of others. This behavior will become more natural with time.

Problem definition

Problem description is an important phase in the design thinking process that entails identifying and comprehending the unique challenge or issue that must be solved. It establishes the groundwork for the whole design process by guaranteeing the problem has been clearly identified and appropriately reflects the users' wants and aspirations.

Researchers propose the following simple outline: 1: Understand the problem, 2: Create a plan, 3: Implement the plan, and 4: Evaluate your work (Auernhammer and Roth, 2023). Once you have a broad knowledge of the problem, it is critical to limit down the extent of the issue. This entails concentrating on a certain component or angle of the problem that you aim to solve. Clarity of scope eliminates uncertainty and enables you to address the problem with greater efficiency.

During the problem description process, it is critical to avoid forming assumptions or leaping to conclusions. Instead, depend on data, research, and user insights to frame the problem correctly. Assumptions might lead to solutions that fall short of the mark and fail to satisfy genuine requirements. Problem definition is an ongoing process, not a one-time event. You may need to tweak or change the problem statement as you gain additional data and insights throughout the design process to better reflect your developing knowledge of the situation.

Problem definition, in simple terms, guarantees that the design process is led by a clear and correct grasp of the challenge. It assists designers in avoiding "solution-first" thinking and instead promotes a user-centered approach in which solutions are produced particularly to meet the recognized difficulty.

Following these simplified stages can help non-tech persons in the design thinking process define problems more easily:

Begin with Empathy: Start with empathy for the end users or stakeholders. Participate in talks, actively listen, and watch their actions and needs.

Use Simple Language: Avoid using technical jargon or confusing terms. To express the difficulty, use basic, ordinary words.

User Stories: Create user stories that explain particular events or circumstances that users face. "As a [user], I want to [goal] so that [benefit]." User stories encapsulate the core of the problem as seen by the user.

Collaboration: Involve a varied set of people in the problem defining process. Their diverse experiences and opinions can help to provide a more complete grasp of the problem.

Simplify the Scope: Concentrate on one component of the problem at a time. Breaking the problem down into smaller, more manageable components makes it easier to describe and handle.

Iterate and revise: As you gain additional facts and ideas, be open to modifying the issue description. Because problem formulation is an ongoing process, provide opportunity for changes depending on new insights.

Open Discussion: Foster an open, nonjudgmental environment in which everyone feels comfortable expressing their knowledge of the situation.


Ideation procedures are creative strategies used in the design thinking process to produce a large number of original ideas and potential solutions to a specific challenge. These methods promote varied thinking, cooperation, and the investigation of novel ways. Here's a breakdown of ideation techniques:

Brainstorming: Brainstorming is a traditional ideation approach in which a group of individuals creates a huge number of ideas in a non-judgmental and free-flowing way. During the first phase, quantity is prioritized above quality, and all ideas are recorded without criticism. The ideas may then be examined, developed, and integrated to create more strong solutions.

Mind mapping: mind mapping is the visual organization of thoughts in a hierarchical and linked framework. It begins with a primary notion and progresses to related concepts. This strategy invites people to investigate multiple elements of the topic and find connections between distinct concepts.

SCAMPER: SCAMPER stands for Substitute, Combine, Adapt, Modify, Put to another use, Eliminate, and Reverse. It encourages people to use these many strategies to creatively modify existing concepts.

Storyboarding: Storyboarding is a visual method that is often utilized in design and movies. It entails developing a series of drawings or pictures that depict the user's trip or the process of the solution. Participants may see and describe potential solutions via storyboarding, making them more concrete.

Worst-case scenario: This strategy entails deliberately studying the problem's worst-case situation. Participants can reveal possible dangers, obstacles, or hazards by doing so. This method frequently generates innovative solutions for preventing or alleviating the worst-case scenarios.

Six Thinking Hats: Edward de Bono invented this approach, which includes allocating several "hats" to participants, each reflecting a distinct style of thinking (e.g., emotional, rational, creative, critical). Participants change hats to approach the subject from several perspectives and develop diverse ideas.

These strategies for idea generation promote non-linear thinking, teamwork, and the investigation of various options. Before going on to the following phases of the design process, design thinkers frequently utilize a mix of these strategies to promote creativity and develop a broad array of ideas.

Prototyping and Iteration

Prototyping and iteration are important parts of the design thinking process because they entail developing tangible illustrations of possible solutions and improving them via continual feedback and improvement. Building a simpler version of a solution to conceptualize and test its features, design, and user experience is what prototyping entails. Physical models, digital mockups, paper sketches, and interactive simulations are all examples of prototypes. A prototype's primary objective is to make the concept physical and allow stakeholders to engage with it as if it were a genuine product or service.

Prototyping aids in the early identification of design faults, usability concerns, and prospective improvements, saving both money and time in the future. Depending on the stage of development and the aims of testing, prototypes can be low-fidelity (simple and rapid) or high-fidelity (detailed and realistic).

Iteration is the process of refining and developing a prototype in response to feedback and insights gleaned through testing and user interactions. Designers receive input from users, stakeholders, or usability testing sessions after testing a prototype to determine what works well and what needs to be tweaked. The prototype is updated, refined, or even totally reinvented in response to input in order to solve identified concerns and make upgrades. The iterative cycle entails continually improving and testing the prototype, with each iteration bringing the solution closer to matching the goals and requirements of the users. Designers get a deeper grasp of the problem and unearth fresh insights that steer the growth of the solution through iteration.

The interaction between prototype and iteration is fluid. Prototypes are created to provide a physical representation of a concept, which is subsequently evaluated in real-world encounters. The input gathered during testing influences the next prototype iteration, resulting in continual improvement. This cyclical process of prototype and iteration enables designers to fine-tune their solutions, confirm assumptions, and develop a user-centered and effective final product. Prototyping and iteration, in essence, encourage an agile and user-focused approach to design, ensuring that the ultimate result is well-designed, functional, and aligned with user demands.

Testing and Feedback

Testing and feedback are critical steps in the design thinking process that entail testing prototypes or solutions with real users or stakeholders in order to acquire insights, identify faults, and improve. The practice of placing a prototype or solution in the hands of real people to see how they interact with it and gain firsthand data on its usability and efficacy is referred to as testing. Testing is used to check assumptions, identify usability issues, and make sure the solution satisfies the intended problem or requirement. Usability testing, user interviews, focus groups, and A/B testing are all examples of testing. Depending on the context and level of development, it can be undertaken in controlled conditions or in real-world settings. Designers closely study user behavior, communications, and emotions throughout testing to discover pain points, bottlenecks, and places for improvement.

Gathering comments, ideas, and recommendations from users, stakeholders, or experts who have engaged with the prototype or solution is what feedback entails. Feedback might include a broad spectrum of insights, such as likes, dislikes, difficulties encountered, and suggestions for improvement. Feedback might be qualitative (descriptive insights) or quantitative (measurable statistics), allowing for a thorough grasp of the user's point of view. Specific, actionable feedback focuses on issues that may be changed to improve the user experience as a whole. Feedback may be obtained from a variety of ways, including user interviews, surveys, direct observations, and online feedback forms.

Some simple steps that non-tech people can take to make the testing and feedback process simpler are:

  • Simplify Prototypes: Create prototypes that are simple to engage with, even if the user lacks technical understanding. To make the testing process more accessible, employ paper drawings, real models, or user-friendly digital tools.

  • Clear Instructions: During testing, provide users with clear and easy instructions. Make sure they comprehend the prototype's objective and any specific activities you want them to undertake.

  • In-Person Testing: When feasible, conduct face-to-face testing sessions. This enables non-technologists to watch user interactions, body language, and emotions in real time, delivering significant information.

  • User Journeys: Ask users to guide you through their interactions, detailing their thought process and decision-making along the way. This helps non-technologists understand the user's point of view.

  • Feedback Forms: Make feedback forms or surveys that are basic and easy to use. Keep your inquiries brief and simple. Non-technologists might concentrate on gathering qualitative observations and ideas.

  • Small Test Groups: To get concentrated input, start with small test groups. Non-technologists may successfully manage and participate with smaller groups, ensuring that each participant's perspective is appreciated.

  • Collaborative Reviews: Involve team members from various backgrounds in the examination and analysis of customer input. Non-tech persons can give their distinct viewpoints to the discovery of insights.

  • Iterative Approach: Accept an iterative approach in which you make small modifications based on user input. Prototypes may be readily adapted and adjusted by non-technologists to match user preferences.

  • Regular Learning: Non-tech people can learn about user interface concepts and best practices on a regular basis to improve their understanding of how to interpret and utilize feedback successfully.

They may successfully conduct testing and gain meaningful input that helps to the design thinking process by customizing these tactics to their skills and experience. Remember that the objective is to establish an inclusive and user-centered strategy that benefits from a diverse variety of viewpoints.

Using Design Thinking in Business.

How can Non-Tech companies benefit from applying design thinking principles?

Design thinking principles are not limited to tech companies; they can be highly beneficial for any type of company, including non-tech businesses. Design thinking is a problem-solving approach that focuses on understanding users' needs, generating creative ideas, and developing innovative solutions. Here's how non-tech companies can benefit from applying design thinking principles:

  1. User-Centric Approach: Design thinking encourages companies to deeply understand their customers' needs, pain points, and preferences. Non-tech companies can use this approach to create products, services, and experiences that directly address their customers' requirements, leading to higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  2. Innovation: Design thinking fosters a culture of innovation. Non-tech companies can use this approach to come up with new ideas for products, services, and business models. By encouraging creative thinking and exploration, companies can differentiate themselves in the market and stay ahead of competitors.

  3. Problem-Solving: Design thinking emphasizes empathetic problem-solving. Non-tech companies can utilize this approach to identify and solve challenges they face, whether it's streamlining internal processes, enhancing customer experiences, or optimizing supply chains.

  4. Collaboration: Design thinking encourages cross-functional collaboration. Non-tech companies can bring together employees from different departments to work together on projects. This collaborative approach can lead to a diverse range of perspectives, resulting in more holistic and effective solutions.

  5. Customer Experience: Enhancing the customer experience is crucial for all businesses. Non-tech companies can use design thinking to map out customer journeys and identify touchpoints where improvements can be made, ultimately leading to better customer engagement and loyalty.

  6. Risk Mitigation: Design thinking involves rapid prototyping and testing of ideas. Non-tech companies can use this iterative process to test new products, services, or strategies on a small scale before fully committing resources. This helps mitigate risks associated with new initiatives.

  7. Employee Engagement: Involving employees in the design thinking process can boost their engagement and satisfaction. Non-tech companies can tap into their employees' creativity and problem-solving abilities, making them feel more valued and empowered.

  8. Adaptation to Change: Non-tech companies operating in rapidly changing markets can use design thinking to adapt quickly to new trends and customer demands. This approach enables companies to pivot and adjust their strategies based on real-time insights.

  9. Strategic Planning: Design thinking can be applied to strategic planning and decision-making. Non-tech companies can use this approach to brainstorm and evaluate various strategies, ensuring that chosen paths align with customer needs and business goals.

  10. Continuous Improvement: Design thinking's iterative nature encourages continuous improvement. Non-tech companies can use this approach to consistently refine their products, services, and processes based on user feedback and changing market conditions.

In essence, design thinking is a versatile methodology that helps companies of all types and industries become more customer-focused, innovative, and adaptive. Its principles can be adapted to suit the specific needs and goals of non-tech businesses, enabling them to thrive in today's dynamic business landscape.

Overcoming Challenges of Implementing Design Thinking

Addressing common challenges in implementing design thinking for non-tech individuals.

Implementing design thinking for individuals who are not familiar with technology or who come from non-technical backgrounds can present some unique challenges. Here are a few common challenges that might arise:

  1. Unfamiliarity with the Process: Non-tech individuals may be unfamiliar with the design thinking process, its steps, and its principles. They might find it challenging to grasp the iterative nature and the user-centered approach of design thinking.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can offer workshops, training sessions, and educational materials to introduce non-tech individuals to the concepts and process of design thinking and provide real-life examples and case studies to demonstrate the successful application of design thinking in non-tech contexts.

2. Resistance to Change: People who are not accustomed to design thinking may resist adopting new methods, especially if they are used to more traditional problem-solving approaches. Overcoming resistance and convincing individuals of the benefits of design thinking can be a hurdle.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can communicate the benefits and rationale for adopting design thinking, highlighting how it aligns with the organization's goals and values and involve leadership in advocating for and endorsing the use of design thinking to overcome resistance to change.

3. Lack of Empathy Skills: Design thinking heavily relies on empathy to understand user needs. Non-tech individuals might have difficulty developing strong empathy skills, which can hinder their ability to truly understand users' perspectives and needs.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can incorporate empathy-building activities and exercises into the training process to help individuals develop their empathy skills and encourage participants to engage in user research and direct interactions with stakeholders to better understand their needs.

4. Limited Creativity: Some non-tech individuals might perceive themselves as not being creative, which could lead to a reluctance to participate in the brainstorming and ideation phases of design thinking.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can foster a culture of psychological safety where individuals feel comfortable sharing creative ideas without fear of judgment and use structured ideation techniques and facilitation to guide non-tech individuals through brainstorming sessions.

5. Difficulty with Rapid Prototyping: Creating prototypes, even low-fidelity ones, can be a challenge for individuals who are not comfortable with technology. This might slow down the process and hinder the ability to test and iterate on ideas.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can provide accessible and user-friendly prototyping tools that don't require advanced technical skill sand offer hands-on training and support for creating prototypes, encouraging experimentation and iteration.

6. Communication Barriers: Design thinking often involves interdisciplinary collaboration. Non-tech individuals might struggle to effectively communicate and collaborate with their more technically-minded colleagues, leading to misunderstandings and challenges in implementing the process.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can facilitate cross-functional teams and encourage open communication between non-tech individuals and their more technically-minded colleagues and promote the value of diverse perspectives and highlight how different skill sets contribute to successful design thinking.

7. Time and Resource Constraints: Implementing design thinking can require time, resources, and a willingness to invest in experimentation. Non-tech individuals might face difficulties in allocating these resources due to competing priorities.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can make a compelling case for the investment of time and resources in design thinking initiatives by showcasing successful outcomes and potential ROI and prioritize and allocate resources strategically, considering the long-term benefits of fostering a culture of innovation.

8. Measurement and Evaluation: Non-tech individuals might find it challenging to measure the impact of design thinking initiatives, especially if they are not accustomed to using metrics or analytics to assess the success of their projects.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can define clear success criteria and metrics for design thinking projects to assess their impact and effectiveness and incorporate data collection and analysis methods to track and measure the outcomes of design thinking initiatives.

9. Adapting to Technology: While design thinking is not exclusively about technology, it often involves using digital tools and platforms for collaboration, ideation, and prototyping. Non-tech individuals might need support and training to adapt to these tools.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can Offer training sessions on using digital tools and platforms that are user-friendly and tailored to non-tech individuals and provide ongoing support and resources to address any technical challenges that may arise.

10. Managing Ambiguity: Design thinking often deals with open-ended and ambiguous problems. Non-tech individuals might struggle with navigating uncertainty and ambiguity, which are inherent in the early stages of the design thinking process.

Solution: Non tech companies or individuals can foster a mindset that embraces ambiguity and encourages experimentation as part of the creative process and break down larger problems into smaller, manageable steps to reduce feelings of overwhelm and uncertainty.

Success Stories of non-tech companies using Design Thinking

Design Thinking Starbucks

  • Starbucks: Starbucks used design thinking to improve the customer experience in their stores. They interviewed customers to understand what they wanted from a coffee shop, and then made changes to their stores to create a more welcoming and comfortable environment. For example, they added round tables to make solo coffee drinkers feel less self-conscious, and they played relaxing music to create a sense of calm.

Design Thinking Nordstrom

  • Nordstrom: Nordstrom is known for its excellent customer service, and they use design thinking to continuously improve their service. They have a team of designers who work with customers to understand their needs and then come up with new ways to improve the shopping experience. For example, they created a mobile app that allows customers to check inventory and make appointments with stylists.\

Design Thinking - Nike

  • Nike: Nike used design thinking to develop new products that would appeal to skateboarders. They interviewed skateboarders to understand their needs and then came up with new shoes and clothing that were specifically designed for skateboarding. This helped Nike to become a prominent brand in the skateboarding community.

Design Thinking - Oral B

  • Oral B used design thinking to improve their electric toothbrush. They observed people brushing their teeth to understand how they could make the process more efficient and effective. This led to the development of a new toothbrush with a curved head that was easier to use and a timer that helped people brush for the recommended two minutes.

Design Thinking Mayo Clinic

  • The Mayo Clinic: The Mayo Clinic used design thinking to improve the patient experience. They interviewed patients to understand their needs, and then came up with new ways to make the healthcare experience more comfortable and efficient. For example, they created a patient-centered design lab where patients can collaborate with designers to create a better healthcare experience.

How to Encourage a Culture of Innovation and Creativity.

Fostering a work culture of innovation and creativity requires a deliberate and multifaceted approach. Here are some strategies that organizations can consider implementing:

  1. Leadership Support and Modeling:

    • Encourage Risk-Taking: Leaders should demonstrate a willingness to take calculated risks and support employees in doing the same.

    • Lead by Example: Senior leadership should actively participate in innovation efforts, showcasing their commitment to creativity and experimentation.

  2. Open Communication and Collaboration:

    • Cross-Functional Teams: Encourage employees from diverse backgrounds and disciplines to collaborate on projects, bringing different perspectives to the table.

    • Transparent Communication: Foster a culture where ideas, feedback, and information are openly shared and valued.

  3. Encourage Autonomy:

    • Empowerment: Provide employees with autonomy over their projects, allowing them to make decisions and drive initiatives forward.

    • Time for Passion Projects: Allocate time for employees to work on personal projects that align with company goals.

  4. Resource Allocation:

    • Allocate Budgets: Dedicate resources, including financial support, time, and personnel, to innovation projects.

    • Innovation Incubators: Create spaces or programs that offer dedicated resources for testing and developing new ideas.

  5. Recognition and Rewards:

    • Incentivize Creativity: Offer rewards, recognition, and incentives for innovative ideas and successful projects.

    • Celebrate Failure: Acknowledge and learn from failures rather than penalizing them, emphasizing the value of experimentation.

  6. Training and Development:

    • Provide Skill-building: Offer training in creativity techniques, problem-solving, and design thinking to help employees develop their innovation skills.

    • Continuous Learning: Encourage ongoing education and self-development to keep employees engaged and informed.

  7. Diverse and Inclusive Environment:

    • Embrace Diversity: Cultivate a diverse workforce that brings together people with different backgrounds, experiences, and viewpoints.

    • Inclusion: Create an inclusive environment where all voices are heard and respected, fostering a sense of belonging.

  8. Physical and Digital Spaces:

    • Flexible Workspaces: Design office layouts that promote collaboration, communication, and spontaneous interactions.

    • Digital Tools: Provide tools and platforms that facilitate virtual collaboration and idea-sharing among remote or dispersed teams.

  9. Innovation Challenges and Competitions:

    • Contests: Organize innovation challenges, hackathons, or idea competitions to engage employees in problem-solving and creativity.

    • Showcase Success: Highlight and celebrate successful projects resulting from these challenges.

  10. Long-Term Vision:

    • Set Clear Goals: Define specific innovation goals aligned with the organization's long-term vision and mission.

    • Measurement and Evaluation: Develop metrics to track progress and outcomes related to innovation efforts.

  11. Adaptability and Continuous Improvement:

    • Embrace Change: Foster a culture that embraces change and is adaptable to new ideas, technologies, and market trends.

    • Feedback Loops: Establish mechanisms for gathering and acting on employee feedback to continuously refine the innovation culture.

These strategies can help organizations create an environment where innovation and creativity thrive. It's important to note that building an innovative culture takes time, consistent effort, and a commitment from all levels of the organization. Additionally, strategies may need to be tailored to the unique context and needs of each organization.

Future Trends and Possibilities for Design Thinking

Since the evolution of design thinking is ongoing it is important to take note and understand that:

  • Design thinking is becoming more collaborative and inclusive. Designers are working more closely with stakeholders, such as community members, government officials, and scientists, to develop solutions that meet the needs of everyone involved. This is leading to more innovative and effective solutions that are more likely to be adopted.

  • Design thinking is becoming more focused on sustainability. Designers are increasingly looking for ways to create solutions that are environmentally friendly and that can help to reduce waste. This is important as the world faces increasing environmental challenges.

  • Design thinking is becoming more digital. Designers are using technology to gather data, simulate solutions, and test prototypes. This allows them to develop more innovative and effective solutions faster.

  • Design thinking is becoming more open source. Designers are sharing their tools and methods with others, which is leading to a more collaborative and creative community.

  • Design thinking is becoming more accessible. There are now many online resources and courses that teach design thinking, making it more accessible to people from all backgrounds.

Here are some potential applications of design thinking:

  1. Digital Transformation: With the increasing reliance on digital technologies and the rise of virtual experiences, Design Thinking is being applied to create user-friendly digital products and services. It helps in designing intuitive user interfaces, improving user experiences in digital environments, and addressing new challenges that arise from the digital transformation of industries.

  2. Incorporation of AI and Automation: As artificial intelligence (AI) and automation become more prevalent, Design Thinking can play a role in designing AI-powered systems that are transparent, ethical, and aligned with human values. Designers will need to ensure that AI technologies are understandable, usable, and beneficial to users.

  3. Sustainability and Social Impact: Design Thinking is increasingly being used to tackle complex social and environmental issues. It can help create sustainable solutions, address climate change, promote social equality, and improve healthcare access, among other global challenges.

  4. Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration: Design Thinking is being embraced by various disciplines beyond traditional design, such as business, engineering, healthcare, and education. Collaborative teams with diverse expertise are using Design Thinking to innovate and solve complex problems from multiple angles.

  5. Data-Driven Decision-Making: The integration of data analytics and user insights is becoming more prevalent in Design Thinking. Designers can use data to gain deeper insights into user behaviors, preferences, and needs, which can inform the design process and lead to more effective solutions.

  6. Global and Cultural Considerations: In a connected world, Design Thinking must address cultural nuances and global contexts. Designers need to be sensitive to different cultural norms, languages, and user behaviors to create solutions that resonate with diverse audiences.

  7. Education and Training: Design Thinking is being incorporated into education and training programs to foster creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills in students. It's being taught as a way of approaching challenges across various subjects and industries.

  8. Continuous Iteration: The iterative nature of Design Thinking aligns well with agile methodologies and lean startup principles. This iterative approach allows for quicker development, testing, and refinement of solutions based on real-world feedback.

  9. Healthcare and Well-being: Design Thinking is being applied to improve patient experiences, healthcare delivery systems, and medical device designs. It's also being used to address mental health challenges and promote overall well-being.

  10. Smart Cities and Urban Planning: As cities become more interconnected and technologically advanced, Design Thinking can help shape the development of smart cities by focusing on user-centric solutions for urban challenges such as transportation, infrastructure, and community engagement.

It's important to note that the evolution of Design Thinking is ongoing, and its potential applications are continually expanding as new technologies emerge and societal needs evolve. The adaptability of Design Thinking makes it a valuable framework for addressing a wide range of complex and dynamic problems in the future.

Start Using our Design Thinking Guide

In this guide, we have explored the principles of design thinking and its relevance for non-tech individuals and organizations. We have seen how the Design Thinking process can be used to solve problems and innovate in a variety of fields. We have also discussed the importance of empathy, user-centricity, ideation, prototyping, and testing in the Design Thinking process. We have seen how these principles can be used to create solutions that are truly user-centered and innovative. Finally, we have looked at some of the challenges and opportunities that non-tech individuals face in adopting Design Thinking.

We have also provided some resources and tools that can help people get started with Design Thinking. We hope that this white paper has been informative and inspiring. We encourage you to embrace Design Thinking principles in your endeavors and to use them to create meaningful change in the world. The future of Design Thinking is bright, and it has the potential to revolutionize the way we solve problems and innovate. If you are looking for a way to make a difference in the world, Design Thinking is a great place to start.


Additional Resources for Design Thinking:


The Double Diamond Model: A visual depiction of the design thinking process, the Double Diamond framework. The process is divided into four stages: discover, define, develop, and deliver. Non-technologists can utilize this framework to step-by-step steer their problem-solving journey.

The 5-Step Process of Stanford The at Stanford University provides a user-centered design method that consists of five steps: empathize, define, ideate, prototype, and test. This reduced structure is simple to follow and apply for non-technologists.


Empathy Maps: Empathy maps assist you in understanding the needs, feelings, and ideas of your consumers. They may be made with a pen and paper or with simple drawing software.

Mind Mapping: To graphically organize thoughts and insights, utilize tools such as pen and paper, whiteboards, or user-friendly online platforms such as MindMeister.

Sticky Notes: Sticky notes, whether physical or digital, are useful tools for brainstorming, idea organizing, and prioritizing.

Non-technologists can make low-fidelity prototypes using materials such as cardboard, craft items, or ordinary objects.


IDEO U: IDEO U provides non-technologists with online courses and materials that address design thinking ideas, methodology, and case studies.

"Design a Better Business" Book: Patrick Van Der Pijl, Justin Lokitz, and Roland Wesseling's book "Design a Better Business" presents practical methods and visual frameworks for implementing design thinking in many circumstances.

"Change by Design" Book: Tim Brown's book discusses the ideas of design thinking and how they may be applied to business and innovation. It's written in an easy-to-read way.

Stanford Course: The at Stanford University provides a virtual crash course in design thinking featuring films, activities, and downloadable tools for non-technologists.


  1. "The Future of Design Thinking." Design Council,

  1. "The Challenges of Implementing Design Thinking." Liedtka, Jeanne, and Tim Ogilvie. Harvard Business Review, vol. 93, no. 9, 2015, pp. 105-114. 

  1. "Design Thinking: A Practical Guide." Brown, Tim, and Roger Martin. Harvard Business Review Press, 2015. 

  1. "The Design Thinking Playbook." Kelley, Tom, and David Kelley. Portfolio, 2013. 

  1. "The Lean Startup." Ries, Eric. Crown Business, 2011. 

  1. "Designing for Social Innovation." Prahalad, Coimbatore K., and Venkat Ramaswamy. Harvard Business Review Press, 2010. 

  1. "How Design Thinking Is Evolving." Harvard Business Review,

  1. "The Power of Design Thinking to Solve Complex Problems." World Economic Forum,

  1. "Design Thinking for Social Impact." Stanford,

  1. "Design Thinking for Sustainability." Ellen MacArthur Foundation,

  1. Auernhammer, J. and Roth, B. (2023). What Is Design Thinking? pp.1–33. doi:

Article written by Raiqah Askeri and Munira Sagir


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